A Funny Thing Happened to Me on the Way to the Forum – I was searching for the origins of a known reputable Ashkenazi family And I found them!

The following article was first published by the Israel Genealogy Research Association‘s Web-site on April 24th 2018 –  All Rights Reserved = © 2017.

In June 2018, the article was published in Spanish and Protuguise by the SEPHARDIC GEN WEBSIT.

It was translated from Hebrew to English by by Yechezkel (“Chezi”) Rappoport, President. The American Friends of the Study of Jewish Genealogy and Intercultural Heritage, Inc.

About the author:

Dr. Chanan Rapaport was born in 1928. Chanan Rapaport served as commander in the “Haganah Underground” during the British Mandate in Palestine and, later, during Israel’s ‘War of Independence’. After the War of Independence, he studied Psychology and Sociology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He holds a doctorate in Clinical Psychology and completed his post-doctoral studies in psychoanalysis, psychotherapy and research, both in the USA.

Upon returning to Israel, he was appointed General and Scientific Director of the “Szold Institute – The National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences”, serving for eighteen years (1965-1982). During those years he also served two Prime Ministers- Golda Meir and Yitzhak Rabin- as advisor on social issues.

In addition, he was also the psychological advisor to the Minister of Education & Culture, as well as supervised all research projects conducted under the auspices of the Ministry. Since the death of the famous genealogist, Dr. Paul Jacobi, he has served as the executor of his scientific estate.

Currently he is the Director General of “The Centre for the Study of the Rapaport Family” as well as Board Member of the “International Institute for Jewish Genealogy and the Paul Jacobi Center” at the National Jewish Library in Jerusalem.

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By Dr. Chanan Rapaport

Foreword:

In 1948, in the waning days of the War of Independence, I had a chance encounter with the renowned historian Prof. Ben Zion Dinaburg-Dinur. The professor inquired whether I was a descendent of the Sepharadi or perhaps the Portuguese branch of the Rapaport family, to which I innocently replied- “I am from the Galician Rapaports”. His surprising reaction was: “Please be seated, Sir. You have no idea”. He then proceeded to explain that from the middle of the 16th century (as the memory of Jewish life in Spain and Portugal began to fade) until the 19th century it was fashionable among Eastern and Western European Jewry to attribute their origin to Jewish families exiled from Spain, thus becoming part of an ancient family with a stamp of respectability.

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Back then, there were two popular explanations for the origin of the name Rappaport² . The first explanation was predicated on a wedding between two honorable Spanish families – the son of the Rapa family married the daughter of the Porto family resulting in a new family name Rappaport³The second explanation asserted that the Rappaport name comprised of ‘Rav’, the important Rabbi of the city of Oporto, a major city in the Portuguese Diaspora. (Although no one bothered to pin down this important personality in the history of the Jews in Portugal, this theory was widely adhered to).

At the end of the War of Independence, I too did not show interest in this subject matter and due to my ignorance did not bother to question the respected Prof. Dinur as to any scientific sources to support these explanations. Much later, after the death of Prof. Dinur, I delved into this matter but could not find any evidence to support the theory that this well-respected Ashkenazi European family branched out of Spain, Portugal and/or any territories under their domain. Therefore, in my article on “The Rappaport Family Name I mentioned the Spanish origins as anecdotal.

Dr. Rapapa, court physician to King Jaime III of Majorca

About three years ago I was informed by my close friend, the late Mrs. Matilda Tager, About a book (written in Catalan) titled “Jewish doctors in Majorca during the Middle Ages” . There, on page 131, was a lawsuit lodged in 1345 by the court doctor Physicus Jucef Salomon Rapapa Vs. King Pedro IV et al for non-payment of 10 libres for medical services rendered to his predecessor King Jaime III et al. She asked me whether in my opinion Rapapa could be a variant of the Rappaport name. My first reaction was positive, but a serious answer required an in-depth investigation.

First of all, a list containing 1.5 million Spanish family names was scrutinized. In that long list, not one name was found to be similar or sounding like Rapaport and/or Rapapa. Conclusion: this name, or one similar to it, does not exist in the collection of family names emanating from Spanish cultures. This fact, coupled with its source in a book dedicated to ‘Jewish Doctors’ leads one to believe that the origin of the name is Jewish. A world renowned scholar in the field of ‘Majorca Jewry’ and himself a descendant from a Jewish family in Majorca, Pere Bonnin, points out in his book “On Jewish Family Names in Spain” that in 1339 there was in Majorca a Jew named Rapapa. Based on these three research works I concluded that it is, indeed, a Jewish name and/or a variant of the name Rapaport.

Additional proof of my supposition that Rapapa denotes a Jewish name comes from the following story related in the book ‘The Jews of Majorca during the 13th and 14th Centuries’¹⁰. A Jewish young lady intended to convert in order to marry her Christian lover. A group of Jews planned to kidnap and hide her until the ensuing storm abated.

The group consisted of: Aahron (in whose house the girl was eventually hidden), Maimon, son of Estruc Ibn-Nunu, David, son of Sopran and Ensrum from the city of Suria in Catalonia. The head of this group was the physician Dr. Vidal Rapapa. The kidnapping plan went off well. The Spanish Church investigators¹¹, however, managed to unmask the plotters and free the girl.

The group was tried and sentenced to long prison terms and stiff fines. The sentencing was appealed (with a large bribe) and subsequently King Jaime II reduced the prison terms and the fines on the condition that the chief plotter, Dr. Vidal Rapapa undertake to keep secret the trial and the ensuing reductions in prison terms and fines. Dr. Vidal Rapapa stuck to his part of the bargain.

This proves beyond any doubt that the name Rapapa is Jewish. After all, a non-Jewish group would not have bothered to endanger its members by planning and actually carrying out the kidnapping of a Jewish maiden to thwart off her betrothal to a gentile.

An interesting testament to the blood ties connecting the Rapapa to Rapaport families as it relates to their common Majorca ancestry has come to light through DNA testing conducted nowadays routinely and used in genealogical research. A member of the Rappoport family in the USA and of a member a Chueta¹² family in Majorca were randomly tested, by a scientific laboratory. It revealed a direct and accurate Mitochondrial DNA connection between two Ashkenazi people.

 It showed clearly that their Haplogroup is not Spanish, but rather originate in the Levant – the Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and is ancient [like Jews from Eretz-Yisrael, before the expulsions]. Both were brothers, offspring to a common mother who lived 500 years ago in spite of the chasm of vast oceans of geography and history.

But, quoting the Greek philosopher Aristotle “one swallow does not herald the coming of spring”. Works of research conducted by the late Matilda Tager on the names of Jews from Spain and environs, yielded many names containing the core name Rap with add-ons. A close check of dates and events pertinent to the list appearing at the end of this article show that they and/or their parents lived in Spain and its environs circa 1200. As we all know too well the Rap-Rappaport families emerged from their anonymity, in southern Bavaria, circa 1380 CE.

This data points out that members of the Rap families lived in Spain, about 200 years prior to their appearance in Central and East Europe. The conclusion emerging from these facts is that the origin of this tribe and its many families is in the Spanish kingdoms, i.e. the origin of this most widely respected Ashkenazi–Jewish Rappaport family, is in Spain.

Etymological sources to the family name/Is the raven on the gate?

The following investigation deals with the meaning of the nucleus Rap in the family name. Following our conclusion that the family’s origin is in Spain and Portugal, I searched for the meaning of RAP– based on words in Spanish and Latin. The first to pop up is RAPace in Spanish and Catalan spoken respectively in the kingdoms of Aragon and that of Majorca. The second was the Latin word RAPax. The meaning of both words is “a predator”, a reasonable choice for families possessing strength, wealth, power and influence who added powerful symbols to their banners, heraldry and gates. A well known example is the Lione = Lion family which affixed the likeness of the “king of the jungle” to its gate and called it Lione de la Porta, and many more such expressions of strength. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that a revered priestly family will express itself in a similar fashion. Following the example¹³ below, we propose an explanation for the family name Rapapa: It is an abbreviation of RAP A la PortA = A predator on the family’s gate = RAPAPA.

The Roman Empire was the main power in Europe – including in Spain – from the first century BCE. The language of the Romans was Latin. Many languages were derived from Latin, including Spanish Portuguese and Catalan. These languages contributed the abbreviation ‘Rap’ – as the base for the Rapapa/Rapaport family name.

We assume, therefore, that the Rap family name might be identified throughout Europe also during the first millennium CE. For their accurate timing of dates and generations, we will need the refined and exact scientific measuring tool of ‘Absolute Generations’¹⁴. [Please, find Dr. ‘Jacobi’s Absolute Generations Scale’ on the last page, before the Appendix].

We should not forget, however, that the Arabic Islamic conquests in Spain started in 711 CE. They ruled over great parts of Spain, almost 800 years [781]. This long period in Spain required, inter alia, the translation of these Latin family names into Arabic¹⁵ .

The emigration of the RAP families from Spain = Aragon, Catalonia, Majorca, Navarra and Valencia, to other European kingdoms and fiefdoms necessitated conformity in sound and meaning to its many prevailing Germanic dialects. The closest German-sounding name is RABe = Raven (bird of prey) which in daily slang is also pronounced RAPe, meaning the same bird of prey named Raven in English.

In addition to similar sound and meaning, European Jewry attributed further symbolic qualities to the ‘raven’ name. Jews deemed themselves as clever, smart, sophisticated and devoted parents, the very same qualities associated with ravens¹⁶ in many religions as well as in folkloric tales worldwide.

And where did European Jewry append Port to their basic family name Rabe=RAPe? The Jews served on that continent as Talmud halachists, religious and social leaders, physicians, bankers and lawyers, as well as industrialists, wholesalers and middlemen in agricultural and sundry mass consumed products.

These activities required a myriad of transportation routes¹⁷ in order to gain access to the goods and then transport it to the markets. Natural landscapes impacted the models of colonization, economy and transportation. Until the 1880’s most populations concentrated along the shores adjacent to plains, lakes, rivers, bays and fertile lands. Where ‘water falls’ existed, they were used in the flour and textile industries followed later by hydroelectric energy. The wide rivers and tributaries crisscrossing Europe formed an excellent network to convey goods and people safely and speedily, relative to that period. Inlets and harbors of various sizes situated near population & production centers served as ideal sites for loading and unloading people & merchandise.

The Spanish term Porta = Door = Gate took on a wider meaning, i.e. Port = a maritime gate to a city.

For goods and people such ports acted as crossroads between the brain’s nerves. In this way goods and people arrive at port A, where they are transferred from ship to a barge for reloading onto ship B, destined to port C and so on.

As noted earlier, the Rapaport family in Europe emerged from anonymity at the port of Ratisbon-Regensburg [49˚01’N/12°06’E] situated along the Regen tributary of the Danube river. After the expulsion of the Jews from Regensburg they arrived at the city of Mainz = Magenza, [50°00’N/08°15’E] on the Rhine river. After the second expulsion of the Jews from Meinz and the escape of Jews from persecutions in Nurenberg [49o 26’N/11o 05’E] situated on the river Pegnitz.

They arrived successively at the ports of Legnago [45°10’N/11°19’E] on the Adige river and to Mestre [45o 29’N/12o 14’E] on the Marco Polo river, both in Italy, to the port of Venice Bay [45°27’/12°20’E], the port of Portobuffole [45°48’N/12°19’E] on the Livaza river as well as the port Piove di Sacco [45°18’N/12° 01’E] on the Berenta river.

Each and every one of these ports could have contributed its Porto = Port title to the second and final part of the name Rapa-Port. The researcher, Dr. Daniel Nissim, determined that the first to complete his name to Rapa-Porto was Isaac ‘HaMoel’= (circumsiser) son of Yechiel Michael HaCohen Rapa (born 1502 in Portobuffole). He was the one who began this tradition, followed by many, of adding Porto = Port to their family name.

Why do ravens symbolize the Rapaport Cohanim?

The above mentioned ‘Mohel’ Isaac son of Yechiel HaCohen Rapa-Porto began referring to himself – circa 1550 “HaOrvi” (of the ravens) following related linkage expressions (“HaGiladi”, “HaShomroni”, “HaGlili” and more). Rabbi Dr. Avraham Menachem Rapa (1520-1596), son of Yaacov Hacohen, published in Verona [1594] an important book titled “Mincha Belulah” where he refers to himself as “Min HaOrvim” (of the ravens) as a part of the family’s “Printers Emblem” featuring a raven in its center.

Here, below, are three different renditions of the ‘Printers’ Emblem,

’first published in the colophon of “Mincha Belulah¹⁸

On Modesty and Piety

Three renditions in eventual printings, reflecting historical changes.

In the upper and lower portions of the original rendition dating to 1594, the artist emphasizes the author’s name. The center part, flanked by two bare-breasted females, depicts two palms open in the well known “Priestly Benediction” over the family symbol, the raven. The latter two elements were not altered in the subsequent renditions.

Descriptive names such as “HaOrvi” and “Min HaOrvim”caused many members of the Rapaport families to adopt them. They reminded me of the list detailing members of Judea’s noble prisoners taken to Rome who are immortalized on ‘Titus Gate’ carrying The Temple’s ‘Menorah’ and sacred vessels, Judaea Capta.

I figured it’s worthwhile to search for of the noble “Min HaOrvim” family members in books¹⁹ as well as in the writings of Josephus Flavius. Sadly, I discovered only eight exiled families that are mentioned by name:

Min HaEdomim” [later known in Rome as the De Rossi family]

Min HaTapuchim” [later known in Rome as the Di Pomis family]

Min HaAnavim”=unpretentious [later known in Rome as De Anawim family]

Min HaNearim” [later known in Rome as the Di Fanciulai family]

Min HaTzifronim”; “Min HaButziki”; “Min HaSeati”; “Min HaKenneset

Coat-of-Arms²⁰

Baron Dr. Arnold Rapoport Von Porada Arnold, son of David: son of Shlomoh Yehudah Rapaport (SHI”R), Chief Rabbi of Prague– the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. SHI”R is Arnold’s grandfather.

 

Arnold attended Krakow University where in 1863 he earned his Dr. Juris degree. He then proceeded to the University of Vienna, where he completed his studies in Economics and Political Science.

He represented, with distinction, the Jewry of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom at the Parliament of the Austrian – Hungarian Empire. On September 6 th 1890, Emperor Frantz Joseph conferred on him and his successors the title “Baron”, henceforth to be known as “Baron Dr. Arnold Rapoport-Adler Von Porada”. The “Von Porada” name is based on the acronym POrt-Rapa (son of) David. He was also a Knight of the French Legion of Honor, as well as other important titles.

Emblem of Galicia & Lodomeria²¹ Under the Austria-Hungarian Empire²¹

 

I am in a long correspondence with the ‘Central Archive of the Austrian Hungarian Empire’ to determine the meaning of the raven on the Galician State Emblem.

Here is my plausible explanation for the two ravens (top and middle) on the Coat-of-Arms of ‘Baron Rapoport Adler Von Porada’:

The central raven is the Familial one, whereas the raven on top symbolizes the Kingdom.

List of references to Rap/Rapaport families – from the scientific research of the

late Matilda Tager

– on Jewish names within the kingdoms that constituted medieval Spain

 

A) For those seeking greater historical depth, herewith the Jacobi Absolute Generations Scale drawn from “Generation 0” to “Generation 48”, during which time, (570 – 632), according to tradition and to many Historians, The Moslem Muchamad is held to have lived.

B) For those seeking greater historical depth, herewith the Jacobi Absolute Generations Scale drawn from “Generation 0” to “Generation 67”, during which time, (-4 – +30), according to tradition and to many Biblical Archaeologists and Historians, Jesus Christ is held to have lived.

C) For those seeking greater historical depth, herewith the Jacobi Absolute Generations Scale drawn from “Generation 0” to “Generation 101”, during which time, (-1049 – -970), according to tradition and to many Biblical Archaeologists and Historians, King David is held to have lived.

D) For those seeking greater historical depth, herewith the Jacobi Absolute Generations Scale drawn from “Generation 0” to “Generation 109”, during which time,(-1275 – -1250), according to tradition and to many Biblical Archaeologists and Historians, one the Jewish Exodus from Egypt occurred.

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Appendix:

Comparative Economic-History. Today’s Value and Buying Power as compared with those of about 700 ( 672 ) years ago.

The 1345 lawsuit in the amount of 10-Libra brought by Court Physician Dr. Yosef Solomon Rapapa against King Pedro IV of Palma de Majorca (for services rendered to his deposed predecessor Jaime III and his entourage) raises questions as to the value of such an amount.

On the surface it sounds like a small economically meaningless amount.

We raised the following questions as to its value:

1) Was it enough – in the year 1345 – to pay a monthly rent on a residential apartment in the capital city of Palma de Majorca?

2) Was it enough – in the year 1345- to pay an annual rent on a residential apartment in the capital city of Palma de Majorca?

3) Was it enough – in the year 1345- to purchase a residential apartment in the capital city of Palma de Majorca?

4) Was it enough- in the year 1345- to purchase a residential house in the capital city of Palma de Majorca?

5) Was it possible – in the year 1345 – to acquire an estate in the capital city of Palma de Majorca for this amount?

6) Was it possible – in the year 1345 – to purchase a palace in the capital city of Palma de Majorca or its environs for this amount?

7) What type of Residence, House, Estate or a Palace with its grounds are we talking about given the senior position of a Court Physician?

8) Was it sufficient to budget operations under any of these scenarios, i.e. Supervisor, Servants, Cooks, Guards and misc. service personnel required to run the household of a respected personality such as the Court Physician?

9) We checked out properties such as: Summer-homes, vineyards, fields of wheat or barley, fruit bearing orchards or for that matter any other valuables.

Sadly, we could not find any answers, so in desperation we tried the Syllogistical route:

a) A Court Physician must be a top-notch professional, renowned for his diagnostic and healing qualities.

b) Look for and compare the salaries of high ranking physicians in rich countries – as the States of Aragon and Majorca in those days – and compare them to the status of similar physicians in the U.S.A. to day.

i) Minimum annual salary of a well known Hospital Director in the U.S. is about 1.5 million dollars.

ii) Minimum annual salary of an established Senior Department Head in the U.S. is about $600,000.

Therefore the counter value of those 10-Libras is

I) 1-Libra = $150,000

II) 1-Libra = $ 60,000

Either sum sounds respectable and most suitable salary to a senior, experienced, successful and well respected doctor.

But how do we know that this was the state of affairs in the year 1345?

In an effort to find an answer or at least a clue we corresponded with many the world over. Finally we found a savior in Prof. (Emeritus) Dr. Jeff Malka²³ , Surgeon and Limb Anatomy Specialist from Washington who corresponded, on our behalf, about this issue with many of his acquaintances in Spain and Balearic Islands.

The answer was found in Pere Bonnin²⁴ who is well versed with daily life in 14th century Majorca:

In 1309 Bonaventura Perpinya, one of the great Spanish artists who lived at the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th centuries, accepted the invitation to decorate and beautify the palace of Sancho I, King of Majorca. This artistic assignment lasted two years and encompassed interior architectural design, paintings, frescos, mosaics and sculpture for which he was paid 4-Libras.

The obvious conclusion is that the demand for 10-Libras by Dr. Yosef Solomon Rapapa was substantial indeed.

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¹⁾ “A Funny Thing Happened to Me on the Way to the Forum” I was searching for the origins of a known reputable Ashkenazi family And I found them!

I came to investigate some of my family origins, but found myself captive to proven facts that revealed a completely opposite situation to what I had expected. This state of affairs reminded me of the musical “A Funny Thing Happened to Me on the Way to the Forum“ which was popular back in the 60’s of the last century, based on comic plays by ancient-Rome playwright Titus Maccius Plautus.

²⁾ This COHANITE Family (of important- Temple priests) is revered in Jewish Orthodox circles as direct descendants of Aharon, Moshe’s brother. As such, they possess the: ‘Attributes of Revered Priesthood’. They perform the traditonal “Cohanim Benediction” and are most sought after in “Pidyon HaBen” rituals.

³⁾ Let it be known at the very beginning that we are using one form of spelling to represent all the Rapaport families. Though it is also known in different spellings such as Rappaport, Rappoport, Rapoportov, Rapiport, Rapeport, Rapperport, Rapart, Rappa, Rapovich, Rapert, Raport, Rapir, Praport and many more.

⁴⁾ Printed in “Et-Mol” – a bi-monthly magazine of history, Volume 31, 2nd edition (184), November 2005, Published by “Yad Ben-Zvi Institute”.

⁵⁾ Mrs. Matilda Tager, a scion of a Moroccan family whose family tree branches as far back as the RAMBAN, was a professional meteorologist and scientific librarian. In addition, she published many scientific papers relating to Sephardic given and family names, for example “Dictionary of Sephardic Given Names”, 2015.

⁶⁾ “LOS MÉDICOS JUDÍOS EN LA MALLORCA BAJOMEDIEVAL: SIGLOS XIV-XV” by Contreras Mas Antonio. Published in Palma de Majorca, 1977. [It enumerates 24 Jewish doctors in Majorca from 1332 to 1431]

⁷⁾ Please, find in the Appendix: A discussion dealing with the comparative value of 10-Libres in the years 1345 and 2017.

⁸⁾ Order and dates of government in Majorca, of the following kings: 2] Jaime II = {1276 – 1311}; 3] Pacific Sancho I {1274- 1324}; 4] Jaime III = {1324 – 1344}; 5] Pedro IV = {1344 – 1387}; 3

⁹⁾ “Sangre judía. Espaňoles de ascendencia hebrea y antisemitismo cistiano”, by Pere Bonnin, 2013

¹⁰⁾ “Los Judios del Reino de Mallorca Durante Los Siglos XIII y XIV”, by Antonio Pons.

¹¹⁾ The zealous church forced the Jews of Majorca to convert as early as 1435, i.e. about 60 years prior to their general expulsion from Spain in 1492 and the forced conversion of those who remained.

¹²⁾ 500 years ago those two ‘brothers’ parted ways. One escaped to Europe whereas the other stayed in Majorca where he was forced to convert to Christianity. However, in order to perceive the ‘new Christians’ distinctly they were obliged to adopt a new family name from a limited list approved by the Church: “Agiló, Bonnín, Cortez, Fuster, Forteza, Martí, Miró, Picó, Pomar, Piňa, Segura, Valls, Valenti, Taronji, Valleriola”. To add insult to injury they were forbidden to marry into ‘original Christian’ families and since they refused to eat pork they were dubbed ‘Chuetas’ (pork ribs). The continuous humiliation and contempt in which the Chuetas were held, explain why many of them were burned at the stake in Majorca until 1691. It was only in 1834 that the Inquisition Laws were finally abolished in Spain though they prevailed in Angola and certain Latin America countries until the end of the 19th century. The laws against Chuetas were abolished in 1921, but latent discrimination lingers on. As a consequence of these rules and regulations anyone carrying one of those family names or pejorative, descends from the Jews of Majorca.

(I) Eliyahu Birenbaum, published in “Da’At”, ‘Herzog Institute’, World Jew section.

(II) M. Levin, Ein Besuch bei den “Leuten der Gasse” in Palma, in Brüll’s Jahrb. i. 132 et seq.;

¹³) Almost every language uses nicknames. For instance: “Adelheid” becomes Adela, Adel, Aydel; “Elizabeth” becomes Isabela=Bela, Beileh. Furthermore, some abbreviations emanate from a fusion of different words resulting in a new one: “thermometer” is based on ‘thermo’ and ‘meter’, “linguist” is based on ‘language’ and ‘linguistics’

¹⁴⁾ My articles on the “Absolute Generations Scale” was published on the website of: “The Israel Genealogy Research Association”, on December, 20est 2014.

¹⁵⁾ Examples from Arabic: Even el-Rap =Avenalrap =Ibn el-Rap =son of the Rap; El Rap =The Rap; El Rab =The Rab; 5

 ¹⁶⁾ Ravens are among the most clever, intelligent, cautious and ‘conniving’ among birds. They also deal with thinking [experiments show ravens resolve problems logically- Scientific American]. Their ability to weigh in and consciously choose between alternatives demonstrates a surprisingly complex mental capability. They wittingly adapt to life next to humans, are able discern other members of their species, possess phenomenal memory, recalling thousands of hidden storage sites for food. In that respect closely resemble humans.

The raven uses tools intensively. It has been demonstrated that the raven plans and creates tools from some leaf parts and uses it to pull larva out of tree cracks. For this and similar talents watch the excellent TED clip at https://www.ted.com/tals/joshua klein on intelligence of crows#t-230844. Being social creatures ravens congregate in large groups but do not establish colonies. They show signs of linguistic skills as well as capability for long-distance communication. This is one of the cleverest and perhaps the only bird with a sense of humor.

Ravens are monogamous for life, becoming a symbol for marriage and fidelity. Couples build their nest, take turns hatching the eggs, jointly feed their chicks and are thus becoming known as dedicated and caring parents.

¹⁷⁾ The European railway network was created towards the end 19th century, in 1880. It followed the ironindustry expansion, the invention of the steam engine and the increased usage of rail cars. In comparison
the first highway between Cologne and Bonn was dedicated only in 1932.

¹⁸⁾ The Seforim Blog’: by Dr. Michael K. Silber, Hebrew University, Jerusalem – December 27th 2010 http://seforim.blogspot.co.il/2010/12/modesty-and-piety-improving-on-past.html 

¹⁹⁾ “The History of the Jews in Rome” by Fogelstein and Rieger, published in Berlin (in German) in 1896, p. 299. The History of the Jews in Italy” by Atilio Milano, published in Turino (in Italian) in 1963, p. 581

²⁰⁾ The Coat-of Arms of Baron Von Porada was received as an official document from ‘The Central Archive of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire’ in Vienna.

²¹⁾ Mr. Benjamin Lukin, the senior researcher at the “Central Archives for the History of Jewish People”, found the Polish Lexicon: “Slownik Geograficzny”, published in 1882. There, on page 19 of the third volume, he found the Polish name of the bird painted on the emblem of Galicia and Lodomeria Professor Yosef Leshem – the renowned ornithologist – confirmed that the bird on the Emblem of Galicia and Lodomeria is, indeed, a Raven.

²³⁾ Grandson of the late Shlomo Malka, Chief Rabbi of the Jews of Sudan, in its capital Khartoum.

²⁴⁾ “Sangre judía. Españoles de ascendencia hebrea y antisemitismo cristiano”, by Pere Bonnin, 2013

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Credits:

Published by the Israel Genealogy Research Association’s Web-site on April 24th 2018.

Translated from Hebrew by Yechezkel (“Chezi”) Rappoport, President.

“The American Friends of the Study of Jewish Genealogy and Intercultural Heritage, Inc.” Boca Raton, FL. 33431. U.S.A Tel. (561)617-7915Yshay. Wollach – Computer Consultant

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* All Rights Reserved = © 2017

(a) Do not copy, photocopy, publish and/or translate, shorten and distribute the article without permission in writing from the author.

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Interested in publishing the article in Russian, German, or Frence?

Please contact Yechezkel (“Chezi”) Rappoport, President. The American Friends of the Study of Jewish Genealogy and Intercultural Heritage, Inc.” Boca Raton, FL. 33431. U.S.A Tel. (561)617-7915 or, email on Jewish Matters:  onjewishmatters@gmail.com

 

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